In storage

Primary symptoms

Discoloration of stored grain.

Fungi can cause molds that produce toxic Mycotoxins in stored grain.


Penicillium and Aspergillus can cause molds. These molds can then produce Mycotoxins as toxic secondary metabolites in agricultural products. Their production is unavoidable and depends on a variety of environmental factors in the field and/or during storage. Mycotoxin contamination is unavoidable and unpredictable, which makes it a unique challenge to food safety (Park and Stoloff, 1989; FAO, 1997). New mycotoxins and co-contamination of known mycotoxins are being discovered at high rates. Considerable evidence supports an association between mycotoxins and certain animal syndromes (CAST, 1989). Although definitive evidence on the cause and effect relationship of mycotoxins and human diseases is limited, this does not necessarily imply that dietary exposure does not represent a potential risk.

Source: R. Lopez-Garcia, D.L. Park and T.D. Phillips Integrated mycotoxin management systems FAO